Creativity is effective novelty. That is to say, it is doing or making something new that solves a problem or usefully changes how we act, think, or feel. To be creative, then, can be as simple as seeing something everyone else sees, but thinking what no one else thinks about it…Other times, it requires taking ideas or processes that people usually view as being totally unrelated and finding some fruitful connection between them.
By labelling a child smart or talented, Dr. Dweck says, you are in effect outsourcing their self-esteem. The more children are praised, the more they may be looking over their shoulder: "Am I going to get praise? Do people think this is good?"
"It removes it from their own enjoyment and self-evaluation to someone else's," she says.
Her advice, based on her research, is to foster in children a "growth mindset" that they can develop their abilities through effort. Resilient kids don't think they're bad when they fail at something, she says.
"My message is not 'don't praise,' " she says, "but 'praise in a way that's helpful to the child.'
# Never express anger when children make mistakes, or imply that you love them less. Mistakes are just mistakes; while they might need to be dealt with, they are never grounds to withdraw love.
# Accept that sometimes second best is good enough, and communicate this.
# Empathize when children make mistakes – ask them how they feel and then repeat that back to them
What brought on the economic meltdown of 2008? Besides the bursting of the housing bubble, Wall Street's malfeasance and non-feasance, and Washington's massive failure to oversee Wall Street, fingers are also being pointed at average Americans…basic theme that goes something like this: For too long, Americans have been living beyond our means. We went too deeply into debt. And now we're paying the inevitable price.
The "living beyond our means" argument, with its thinly-veiled suggestion of moral terpitude, is technically correct. Over the last fifteen years, average household debt has soared to record levels, and the typical American family has taken on more of debt than it can safely manage…
But this story leaves out one very important fact. Since the year 2000, median family income has been dropping, adjusted for inflation. One of the main reasons the typical family has taken on more debt has been to maintain its living standards in the face of these declining real incomes.
No other chess champion has had to work so hard. In 2000, Anand won knockouts (KOs) against eight opponents. In 2007, he beat seven GMs in a double round-robin. In 2008, he won a head-to-head match against his nearest rival. Each format demanded different skills and perhaps nobody else has the versatility…
In the Mexico round-robin and in Bonn, Anand showed near-inhuman ability to stay focused. His key rivals enjoy political support…Formats have been changed to suit them. Not intimidated, Anand concentrated on playing better chess.
His preparation for Bonn was also far superior. Chess players train to recognise many little patterns, and to marry those harmoniously. A close analogy is music with its chord progressions and melodic sequences. A top-flight GM learns to decode harmonics of style and how to jam those harmonics. Pros study each other's games, seeking discordant notes. They try to reach situations where they themselves are not prone to false moves and their rivals are.
As you read a log, you have the curious sense of moving backward in time as you move forward in pages—the opposite of a book. As you piece together a narrative that was never intended as one, it seems—and is—more truthful. Logs, in this sense, were a form of human self-correction. They amended for hindsight, for the ways in which human beings order and tidy and construct the story of their lives as they look back on them. Logs require a letting-go of narrative because they do not allow for a knowledge of the ending. So they have plot as well as dramatic irony—the reader will know the ending before the writer did.
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